author : Hon A/Prof Amanda Oakley, Dermatologist, Hamilton, New Zealand, 1997. Revised August 2014. Skin of color update : Dr Chelsea Jones, Resident Medical Officer, John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, NSW, Australia ; Dr Monisha Gupta, Dermatologist, University of NSW and Western Sydney University, Sydney, NSW, Australia. December 2020 .

What is psoriasis?

psoriasis is a chronic incendiary skin condition characterised by clearly defined, loss and lepidote plaques. It is classified into a numeral of types .

Who gets psoriasis?

psoriasis affects 2–4 % of males and females. It can start at any long time including childhood, with peaks of attack at 15–25 years and 50–60 years. It tends to persist lifelong, fluctuating in extent and austereness. It is peculiarly coarse in Caucasians but may affect people of any race. About one-third of patients with psoriasis have family members with psoriasis .

What causes psoriasis?

psoriasis is multifactorial. It is classified as an immune-mediated inflammatory disease ( IMID ).

familial factors are authoritative. An individual ‘s genic profile influences their character of psoriasis and its response to discussion. Genome-wide association studies report that the histocompatibility complex HLA-C*06:02 ( previously known as HLA-Cw6 ) is associated with early-onset psoriasis and guttate psoriasis. This major histocompatibility complex is not associated with arthritis, breeze through dystrophy, or late-onset psoriasis. Theories about the causes of hyperproliferation of the peel in psoriasis need to explain why the skin is red, inflamed, and thickened. It is clean that immune factors and inflammatory cytokines ( messenger proteins ) such as IL1β and TNFα are creditworthy for the clinical features of psoriasis. current theories are exploring the TH17 pathway and release of the cytokine IL17A .

What are the clinical features of psoriasis?

Psoriasis normally presents with symmetrically distributed, red, lepidote plaques with well-defined edges. The scale is typically silvern white, except in hide folds where the plaques frequently appear glazed with a damp peeling surface. The most common sites are scalp, elbows, and knees, but any partially of the bark can be involved. The plaques are normally very persistent without treatment. itch is largely balmy but may be severe in some patients, leading to scratching and lichenification characterised by thicken coriaceous bark and increased bark markings. irritating hide cracks or fissures may occur. When psoriatic plaques clear up, they may leave brown or pale marks that can be expected to fade over respective months .

How is psoriasis classified?

Certain features of psoriasis can be categorised to help determine allow investigations and treatment pathways. Overlap may occur .

  • Early age of onset < 35 years (75%) vs late age of onset > 50 years
  • acute eg guttate psoriasis vs chronic plaque psoriasis
  • Localised eg, scalp, palmoplantar psoriasis vs generalised psoriasis
  • Small plaques < 3 cm vs large plaques > 3 cm
  • Thin plaques vs thick plaques
  • Nail involvement vs no nail involvement

Types of psoriasis

Guttate psoriasis

Post-streptococcal acute guttate psoriasis

  • widespread small plaques
  • Often resolves after several months

Guttate psoriasis

Guttate psoriasis

Guttate psoriasis

Guttate psoriasis

Small plaque psoriasis

  • Often late age of onset
  • Plaques < 3 cm
  • Persistent and treatment-resistant
  • Plaques > 3 cm
  • Most often affects elbows, knees and lower back
  • Ranges from mild to very extensive

Chronic plaque psoriasis

Plaque psoriasis

Psoriasis

Chronic plaque psoriasis

Unstable plaque psoriasis

  • The rapid extension of existing or new plaques
  • Koebner

    phenomenon: new plaques at sites of skin injury

  • Induced by infection, stress, drugs, or drug withdrawal
  • Affects body folds and genitals
  • Smooth, well-defined patches
  • Colonised by candida yeasts

Flexural psoriasis

Flexural psoriasis

Genital psoriasis

Flexural psoriasis

  • Often the first or only site of psoriasis

Scalp psoriasis

Scalp psoriasis

Scalp psoriasis

Scalp psoriasis

  • Overlap of seborrhoeic dermatitis and psoriasis
  • Affects scalp, face, ears and chest
  • Colonised by malassezia

Sebopsoriasis

Sebopsoriasis of ear

Sebopsoriasis of ear

Sebopsoriasis of chest

Sebopsoriasis of chest

Sebopsoriasis of scalp

Sebopsoriasis of scalp

Palmoplantar psoriasis

Palmoplantar psoriasis

Palmoplantar psoriasis

Palmoplantar psoriasis

  • Pitting, onycholysis, yellowing, and ridging
  • Associated with inflammatory arthritis

Nail psoriasis

Nail psoriasis

Psoriatic nail dystrophy

Psoriatic nail dystrophy

  • Rare
  • May or may not be preceded by another form of psoriasis
  • Acute and chronic forms
  • May result in systemic illness with temperature dysregulation, electrolyte imbalance, cardiac failure

Erythrodermic psoriasis

Erythrodermic psoriasis

Erythrodermic psoriasis

Erythrodermic psoriasis

Generalised pustulosis and localised palmoplantar pustulosis are no longer classified within the psoriasis spectrum .

How do clinical features vary in differing types of skin?

Plaque psoriasis is the most common character of psoriasis in all racial groups. Non-Caucasians tend to have more across-the-board skin participation than Caucasians. asian populations are reported to have the highest percentage of body surface sphere participation. In skin of color the plaques are typically slurred with more marked silver scale and itch. The pinkness of early patches may be more difficult to appreciate resulting in a low PASI assessment. The thick plaques may appear violet or iniquity in tinge. Plaque psoriasis normally resolves to leave hyperpigmentation or hypopigmentation in skin of color, which further impacts quality of life even after disease headroom. other types of psoriasis show variable rates in different skin types. Palmoplantar psoriasis is reported to be most park in the indian population. Non-Caucasians are more likely to present with pustular and erythrodermic psoriasis than Caucasians, whereas flexural psoriasis is said to occur at a lower rate in skin of semblance.

Plaque psoriasis in skin of colour

plaque psoriasis skin of colour 00001

plaque psoriasis skin of colour 00002

Chronic plaque psoriasis

 

Factors that aggravate psoriasis

Health conditions associated with psoriasis

Patients with psoriasis are more probably than others to have associated health conditions such as are listed hera .

How is psoriasis diagnosed?

psoriasis is diagnosed by its clinical features. If necessary, diagnosis is supported by distinctive skin biopsy findings .

Assessment of psoriasis

medical assessment entails a careful history, examination, questioning about the effect of psoriasis on daily life, and evaluation of comorbid factors. Validated tools used to evaluate psoriasis include :

  • Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI)
  • Self-Administered Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (SAPASI)
  • Physicians/Patients Global Assessment (PGA)
  • Body Surface Area (BSA)
  • Psoriasis Log-based Area and Severity Index (PLASI)
  • Simplified Psoriasis Index
  • dermatology Life Quality Index ( DLQI)
  • SKINDEX-16

The asperity of psoriasis is classified as mild in 60 % of patients, moderate in 30 % and hard in 10 %. evaluation of comorbidities may include :

  • Psoriatic Arthritis Screening Evaluation (PASE) or Psoriasis epidemiology Screening Tool (PEST)
  • Body Mass Index (BMI ie, height, weight, waist circumference)
  • Blood pressure (BP) and electrocardiogram ( electrocardiogram)
  • Blood sugar and glycosylated hemoglobin
  • lipid profile, uric acid

Treatment of psoriasis

General advice

Patients with psoriasis should ensure they are well informed about their skin condition and its discussion. There are benefits from not smoking, avoiding excessive alcohol, and maintaining optimum slant .

Topical therapy

mild psoriasis is by and large treated with topical agents alone. Which treatment is selected may depend on body site, extent and severity of psoriasis .

Phototherapy

Most psoriasis centres offer phototherapy ( alight therapy ) with ultraviolet ( UV ) radiation sickness, frequently in combination with topical or systemic agents .

Systemic therapy

Moderate to severe psoriasis warrants treatment with a systemic agent and/or phototherapy. The most common treatments are : other medicines occasionally used for psoriasis admit : systemic corticosteroids are best avoided ascribable to a risk of dangerous withdrawal erupt of psoriasis and adverse effects .

Biologics

Biologics or targeted therapies are reserved for austere psoriasis tolerant to conventional discussion chiefly because of expense, as side effects compare favorably with early systemic agents. They can besides be used to treat coincident psoriatic arthritis. These treatment include :

many early monoclonal antibodies are under investigation in the treatment of psoriasis. oral agents working through the protein kinase pathways are besides under investigation. respective JAK ( Janus kinase ) inhibitors are under probe for psoriasis, including tofacitinib and the TYK2 ( tyrosine kinase 2 ) inhibitor BMS-986165 ; both are in Phase III

informant : https://nailcenter.us
Category : Nail tips

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