approximately 350,000 people are employed in pinpoint salons and other personal care services in the United States according to industry estimates ( Nails Magazine, 2008–2009 ). These estimates indicate the work force is largely female ( 96 % ) with the diligence employing a big numeral of minority workers ( 63 % ). Nail salon employees are potentially exposed to dozens of chemicals including acrylates, solvents, and biocides as dusts or vapors. A little but growing act of studies have examined possible links between nail technicians ’ knead and health outcomes, such as respiratory, neurological, and musculoskeletal effects, equally well as other health conditions. much of the NIOSH-sponsored inquiry to-date has focused on the respiratory system. Concerns about job-related health effects associated with chemicals routinely used by complete technicians drew fresh attention on May 11, 2015, when Governor Andrew M. Cuomoexternal picture of New York announced a newly enterprise to “ prevent unlawful practices and insecure working conditions ” in New York nail salons, following the issue of a bipartite fact-finding seriesexternal picture in the New York Timesexternal icon .
Nail technicians perform manicures and may besides perform pedicures. Manicures are performed over a workstation—or “ pinpoint postpone ” —with the node ’ randomness hands resting on the table as they work. The nail table is, therefore, directly below the nail technicians ’ breathing zone. Downdraft vented complete tables and portable beginning capture systems that place local run down public discussion close to the work sphere provide the means to vent ( remove ) electric potential debris or chemicals away from the breathing partition. frankincense, theoretically, potential contaminants may be removed before they cross the emit zone and are inhaled. good general room ventilation is besides crucial. There is some overlap in nail products and processes for manicures and pedicures. Exposures may differ, though, as pedicures involve processes such as soaking feet, filing calluses, and the practice of pedicure work stations, but do not typically involve artificial collar application .
The NIOSH publication entitled Controlling Chemical Hazards During the Application of Artificial Fingernails ( NIOSH Publication No. 99-112 ) describes simple measures to reduce exposures during artificial breeze through application, such as keeping dispensers closed and wearing long sleeves and gloves to protect skin from electric potential irritants and sensitizers. information is besides provided on mastermind controls, such as how to build a downdraft vented nail table that vents to the outdoors, plus references to early sources of information .
View the spanish adaptation of this report.
NIOSH Report: An evaluation of Local Exhaust Ventilation Systems for Controlling hazardous Exposures in Nail Salonspdf picture
EPHB Report No. 005-164
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ( NIOSH ) conducted a research project to examine the effectiveness of different portable source capture ventilation systems ( SCVS ) units with the likely for use in breeze through salons. Units received for evaluation in reception to a Federal Register Noticeexternal icon featured local exhaust recirculation. With local consume recirculation, contaminated air is drawn through a filter and then vented it back into the room ( for the NIOSH evaluation, however, air travel was vented into an run down system ). The air intakes on these SCVS units could besides be positioned indeed that contaminated air could be drawn into the unit before it crosses the breathing partition of the face. Airflow and get characteristics of the units ampere well as the make noise levels around them were evaluated .
NIOSHTIC-2 research results on manicurists and nail tables
NIOSHTIC-2 is a searchable bibliographic database of occupational safety and health publications, documents, grant reports, and journal articles based on research supported in wholly or in part by NIOSH .
Journal Articles and Abstracts Published by NIOSH Authors
A original respiratory health judgment of smash technicians : symptoms, lung function, and airline ignition
Am J Ind Med. 2009 Nov ; 52 ( 11 ) :868-75.
A fly respiratory health assessment of nail technicians and a comparison group was conducted. Lung serve values and symptoms were presented by group. Among the breeze through technician group, relationships between respiratory measures ( lung serve and azotic oxide ) and some exposure measures were seen, suggesting a motivation for farther learn .
urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations among workers in selected industries : a pilot burner biomonitoring study
Ann Occup Hyg. 2009 Jan ; 53 ( 1 ) :1-17.
Workers from manufacturing companies and nail-only ( manicure ) salons that used phthalates or phthalate-containing materials were recruited into the study. Manicure, pedicure and artificial collar services were provided at nail-only salons where di-n-butyl phthalate ( DBP ) was confirmed in polishes, topcoats and basecoats used by the study participants. Concentrations of 10 phthalate metabolites were measured in workers ’ urine samples. occupational exposure to DBP was most discernible in arctic gasket, phthalate ( raw material ) and rubber hose manufacture, with DBP metabolite concentrations exceeding general population levels by 26-, 25- and 10-fold, respectively, whereas DBP exposure in nail-only salons ( manicurists ) was 2-fold higher than in the general population .
risk factors for asthma among cosmetology professionals in Colorado
J Occup Environ Med. 2006 Oct ; 48 ( 10 ) :1062-9.
A study was conducted of the preponderance, work-attributable risk, and tasks associated with asthma in a random sample of cosmeticians, manicurists, barbers, and cosmetologists holding licenses in Colorado. application of artificial nails, hairstyling and shaving and honing were significantly associated with asthma arising in the course of use .
Hazards of Ethyl Methacrylate [ NIOSHTIC-2 pilfer ]
Am J Contact Dermat. 2000 Jun ; 11 ( 2 ) :119-20.
Letter to the editor program with mention to NIOSH Health Report No. ECTB 171-05v, “ Controlling Chemical Hazards in the Nail Salon Industry. ” Contains a answer to commentary regarding the description of hazards of ethyl methacrylate in the NIOSH report .
A new manicure table for applying artificial fingernails [ NIOSHTIC-2 abstract ]
Appl Occup Environ Hyg. 2000 Jan ; 15 ( 1 ) :1-4.
A multi-station downdraft collar table was developed by NIOSH for workplaces where respective clients are served at once. A conventional of the mesa, which vents to the outdoors, was shown and early measures to reduce exposures are described. The postpone was evaluated and shown to reduce levels of ethyl methacrylate in personal breathe zones .
control of ethyl methacrylate exposures during the lotion of artificial fingernails
Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1997 Mar ; 58 ( 3 ) :214-8.
A commercially available recirculating downdraft complete table with charcoal filters was purchased and evaluated. NIOSH made modifications to the table and vented the system to the outdoors. An evaluation was performed. The average ethyl methacrylate exposure in personal breathing zone samples when using the modified table for approximately 6 hours was 0.6 ppm ; when using the unventilated conventional table, the average exposure was 8.7 ppm. The deviation in the values was statistically significant .
NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) Reports
evaluation of Ergonomics, Chemical Exposures, and Ventilation at Four Nail Salonspdf icon [ PDF – 1,245 KB ]
HHE Report, 2015-0139-3338, Spanishpdf picture Vietnamesepdf icon
Warren Techpdf icon [ PDF – 211 KB ]
HHE Report, HETA 2002-0306-2911
The Grand Experience Salonpdf picture [ PDF – 229 KB ]
HHE Report, HETA 97-0153-2694
Tina & Angela ’ s Nail Salon pdf icon [ PDF – 176 KB ]
HHE Report, HETA 92-128-2241
Haute Nailspdf icon [ PDF – 167 KB ]
HHE Report, HETA 90-048-2253
Chapple Hair Styling Salonpdf icon [ PDF – 190 KB ]
HHE Report, HETA 89-138-2215
Journal Article Published by Author of NIOSH-Sponsored Extramural Research
ISRN Public Health volume 2012 ( 2012 ), Article ID 962014, 7 pages
due to the complexity of the nail salon cultivate environment, traditional approaches to exposure assessment in this context tend to mischaracterize potential hazards as nuisances. For this investigation, a feasible “ indoor air ” approach was devised to characterize potential hazards and ventilation in Boston, Massachusetts area nail down salons which are primarily owned and staffed by vietnamese immigrants. A community-university partnership plan recruited salons to participate in a short audit which included carbon dioxide measurements and evaluation of other air timbre metrics. twenty-two salons participated. seventy-three percentage of the salons had spot carbon paper dioxide measurements in excess of 700 ppm, the level corresponding to a public discussion rate recommended for smasher salons. fourteen salons ( 64 % ) did not have a mechanical ventilation arrangement to provide clean atmosphere and/or exhaust contaminated air. The miss of adequate breathing is of significant refer because of the presence of potentially hazardous chemicals in salon products and the common self-report of symptoms among pinpoint technicians. Community and worker health may be improved through borrowing of recommend breathing guidelines and reduction in the venture likely of nail products .
Results from a community-based occupational health view of Vietnamese-American complete salon workers
J Immigrant Minority Health ( 2008 ) 10:353–361.
A community-university collaborative partnership assessed self-reported work-related health effects and environmental factors in Boston ’ s vietnamese immigrant community via an interviewer-assisted survey. seventy-one nail down technicians responded. musculoskeletal disorders, skin problems, respiratory excitation and headaches were normally reported as work-related, as were inadequate air quality, dusts and nauseating odors. The report of a work-related respiratory symptom was importantly associated with the report of exposure factors such as poor air quality. absence of skin disorders was associated with baseball glove use and musculoskeletal symptoms were associated with years worked as a breeze through technician. Work-related health effects may be coarse in complete salon oeuvre. Chemical and musculoskeletal hazards should be reduced through product and equipment redesign .
NIOSH Science Blogs
Researching risk of Birth Defects Among Pregnant Nail Salon Workers and Hairdressers
Nail Salon Table evaluation
The OSHA web site covering Health Hazards in Nail Salonsexternal icon includes information and steps that nail salon workers and employers can take to prevent injuries and illnesses. information is besides available for workers in OSHA ’ s publication “ Stay Healthy and Safe While Giving Manicures and Pedicures : A Guide for Nail Salon Workers, ” besides available through this web site.
California Safe Cosmetics Program Product Databaseexternal icon
Cheryl Estill, MS, PE
NIOSH Industrial Hygiene Supervisor
( 513 ) 841-4476
CEstill @ cdc.gov
Jack ( Ming-Lun ) Lu, PhD
NIOSH Research Ergonomist
( 513 ) 533-8158
mlu @ cdc.gov